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It cannot be used directly to date rocks; however, it can potentially be used to put time constraints on some inorganic material such as diamonds (diamonds could contain carbon-14). Cosmic rays from outer space, which contain high levels of energy, bombard the earth’s upper atmosphere.
These cosmic rays collide with atoms in the atmosphere and can cause them to come apart.
The atomic number corresponds to the number of protons in an atom.
Atomic mass is a combination of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
The procedures used are not necessarily in question. The secular (evolutionary) worldview interprets the universe and world to be billions of years old. The use of carbon-14 dating is often misunderstood.
Carbon-14 is mostly used to date once-living things (organic material). Carbon-14 is constantly being added to the atmosphere.
Some isotopes of certain elements are unstable; they can spontaneously change into another kind of atom in a process called “radioactive decay.” Since this process presently happens at a known measured rate, scientists attempt to use it like a “clock” to tell how long ago a rock or fossil formed.
So, a carbon atom might have six neutrons, or seven, or possibly eight—but it would always have six protons.
An “isotope” is any of several different forms of an element, each having different numbers of neutrons.
Neutrons that come from these fragmented atoms collide with C to be useful in age estimates.
This is a critical assumption in the dating process.